Continuous Thermal Processing of Foods – Pasteurization and UHT Sterilization. Article in International Journal of Food Science & Technology 36(6) – International Journal of Food Science & Technology Continuous Thermal Processing of Foods – Pasteurization and UHT Sterilization. Buy Continuous Thermal Processing of Foods: Pasteurization and UHT Sterilization and more from our comprehensive selection of Continuous Thermal .

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Table 1 Theoretical bactericidal and chemical effects 1 of possible temperature—time combinations for producing ESL milk.

This is similar to findings for contaminants in pasteurized milk [ 9192 ] and suggests the need for processor-specific remedial action to reduce bacterial contamination in market milk. This can be best achieved by heating at high temperature for a short holding time using direct heating, and aseptically packaging the product.

Rowan and Anderson [ 60 ] reported that of 38 psychrotrophic B. Looking for beautiful books?

Optimum Thermal Processing for Extended Shelf-Life (ESL) Milk

Inactivation of vegetative bacteria by rapid decompression treatment. Te Giffel et al. Some observations on the germination, heat resistance and outgrowth of fast-germinating and slow-germinating spores of Bacillus cereus in pasteurized milk.

They found that B.

Contamination of milk with Bacillus cereus by post-pasteurization thrmal exposure as evaluated by automated ribotyping. Heat Treatments and Alternative Methods. Processing factors influencing quality and stability of extended shelf life ESL milk. An alternative measure is the undenatured whey protein index WPNIwhich is commonly used to indicate the severity of the pre-heating process in the manufacture of skim milk powder [ 97 ].

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Write a product review. Pasteurization and UHT Sterilization. Conflicts of Interest The author declares no conflict of interest. Griffiths and Phillips [ 42 ] reported that three studies found it to be the main psychrotrophic spore-former in pastteurization milk and others have found it to be the dominant psychrotrophic spore-former in pasteurized milk, e.

Additional Details Number of Volumes. Mugadza and Buys [ 2854 ] reported that PaenibacillusB. Sensory and microbial quality of milk processed for extended shelf life by direct steam injection. Pasteurization, sterilization, and aseptic processing are all discussed, with emphasis on the underlying principles and problems of heat treatment of more viscous fluids, where streamline flow conditions are likely to prevail, and of provessing containing particles.

The major interest in B. Therefore, this milk meets the criteria proposed here. Detection of Bacillus cereus diarrheal enterotoxin in raw and pasteurized milk.

Optimum Thermal Processing for Extended Shelf-Life (ESL) Milk

Providing coverage of thermal processing of liquid and particulate foods, this book covers food products including soups, sauces, fruit juices, and other beverages. Thermodestruction of Bacillus spores in milk. There is no doubt that B. Diarrhoeal enterotoxin production by psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus present in reconstituted milk-based infant formulae MIF Lett. While aseptic packaging is usually associated with UHT products, it is recognized that it is highly desirable, though not essential, for ESL products continuoux 9394 ].

In Figure 1these conditions lie just to the right of ESL line 1. Heat resistance of Bacillus cereus spores; pp.

Fluctuations to higher temperatures will increase the risk of proteolysis and the development of bitterness. Spoilage Potential of Bacillus spp. Occurrence and characterization of psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus on farms in The Netherlands. The lower temperature in the indirect system is compensated for by the extra heat input from the upper heating and cooling sections to achieve the desired bactericidal effect.


The above reports strongly suggest the involvement of biofilms in PPC. Throughout, factors influencing the safety and quality of heated foods are emphasized. The common spoilage organisms in commercial ESL milks included the non-spore-formers RhodococcusAnquinibacterArthrobacterMicrobacteriumEnterococcusStaphylococcusMicrococcusand coryneforms.

In a trial with good-quality milk, Blake et al. It should have a refrigerated shelf-life of more than 30 days. Germination of spores of Bacillus cereus in milk and milk dialysates: Food Engineering and Dairy Technology.

The major distinguishing feature of direct heating methods relevant to ESL milk processing is the high rate of heating and cooling, on the order of 0. Since ESL milk is designed to have a shelf-life of at least 30 days, it is possible for B.

Mikolajcik [ 71 ] reported that B. Incidence and characterization of Bacillus cereus in two dairy processing plants. For example, van Asselt and Te Giffel [ 79 ] and de Jong et al.

However, the reports are inconsistent. In fact, this is what has been reported by several authors and is the experience of processors.