(Yescombe ) also describes the range of PPP structures and b. Ley y Reglamento de Concesiones de Obras Públicas: Decreto Supremo [#] . IPCC. Accessed March 13, “IPCC website.” Geneva. Security issues related to the transport of radioactive material by the Nuclear Regulatory. Authority (in .. (Ezeiza Atomic Center) and RA-6 (Bariloche Atomic Center) to USA, in the years and respectively . [1] Decreto N° 26 mar. Parque Natural da Ilha do Pico. De acordo com o artigo º do Decreto Legislativo. Regional n.º 15//A, de 25 de Junho, o Parque Natural.

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Examining the Border Integration Zone plan Although elements of the civil society of the border such as representatives of the intermediate level of government have been present in various forums within which the bilateral agenda was defined, their visibility and influence in them have been marginal, with the national agendas being privileged in the relationship, which is even evident in the binational action on the decfeto.

This path appears to be the that which several cooperation mechanisms between both countries followed; to note two of these: Estudios Fronterizos, 18 35, doi: It is important to emphasize the intense development in recent years of the bilateral relationship under the framework of the Andean Nations Community Comunidad Andina de Naciones [CAN]through the adoption of the Community Policy for Integration and Border Development, formally adopted through CAN decisions, and In both Colombia and Peru, the intermediate and local levels have planning and development functions, in addition to some specific functions in border zones.

In terms of operational structure and coordination, the PPCP contemplated an executive commission connected to the Mixed Commission for Amazonian Cooperation directed by the ministries, a binational technical committee for the administration and direction of the plan, and technical units or coordinated teams. It is interesting to note that, in practice, these neighborhood commissions, starting inreinserted the importance of local authorities and actors at least the most representative organization of business people when composing the Colombian delegation to the Neighborhood Commission.

Decree of This shows how the bilateral agenda is advanced between the different levels of government in an uncoordinated and poorly planned manner and expresses a latent danger for local and intermediate territorial entities in the framework of integration processes, which, despite being present in some forums that define the public agendas, have little influence over them.

The incorporation of traditional knowledge into productive models. For its part, the Peruvian Constitution, through articlerecognizes special faculties for the municipalities of provinces and districts located on the borders, allowing them to hold protocols and integration conventions among themselves, with their national or international counterparts, with a requirement for the latter being the participation of the Ministry of Foreign Relations, which is added to elements with established norms for political-administrative and fiscal decentralization towards the intermediate and local levels of governments in regard to the particularities of border legislation from both countries Landa and Velazco, Key ideas Weak state presence on the border.

Key ideas The limited capacity to create a work force for sustenance crops from crops for drug trafficking. The National Colombian Administrative Commission was created in Decree, but its review work has been limited, as has been its continuity under the framework of bilateral relations, so much so that this Bilateral Commission was not included among the instances of coordination contemplated in the Plan for the Peruvian-Colombian Border Integration Zone, even though this plan contemplates important reforms for the Convention.

Diana Carvajal Director of America-Minrelex.


Jorge Aponte Motta, e-mail: Coordinating from above without participation from below. Her lines of research are implementation of public policies, border analysis and international relations.


This does not suggest sustained actions or permanent structural programs for health care; the same is true for the telemedicine program, which, without the technical infrastructure, qualified personnel, mechanisms for transferring patients, institutional connections and plans for inter-administrative management, has a limited field of action. Laura Ardila National Army.

Strengthening local and regional actors: Towards a cross-border government? Despite the weakness in the construction of local institutional structures and cross-border coordination, an important coordination between the Mixed Amazonian Cooperation Commission of the PPCP and the Neighborhood Commission stands out whenever they appear to concur in the objective of consolidating the ZIF between both countries, which makes notable an important continuity between the achievements reached within the PPCP.

However, it is important to emphasize that, in this commission, apart from the commerce and foreign affairs ministries, the governors of Amazonas and Putumayo had seats, as did the chambers of commerce of both departments, allowing a glimpse of some local participation in the mechanism Decreto Revista de Estudios Transfronterizos10 1 The commission was initially composed of representatives from both governments and the main business organizations from both countries, which would hold periodic meetings Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores,p.

Piden derogar el decreto de Macri que recorta las asignaciones familiares

Experience from Sinchi and Pedicp: In this sense, the objectives proposed were a to promote the sustained development of the zone, b to improve the quality of life of the population, and c to integrate the zone with the territory of both countries, for which it was necessary to construct the infrastructure of communicating roads and means of transport.

Therefore, we support the consolidation of a decreti type of diplomacy that starts from the local to strengthen cross-border cooperation networks.

It is fitting to ask whether the ZIF plan faces this precarity or reproduces the national models in the relationship. Cross-border paradiplomacy in Latin America. The formulation, adoption, and application of the necessary normativity to consolidate binational integration and cooperation, with an emphasis on the movement of people, border commerce, and the free navigation of common rivers.

This is perceived as a mechanism of local de-institutionalization because the central axes on which the majority of the Plan’s objectives are developed are superimposed over the competencies of the local and intermediate government entities in the two countries.

Adriana Mayela Hurtado Colombian. The above is framed within 200 explicit functions of these levels of government. This situation appears to contrast with the intense efforts by both states to develop a border politics that aim to be increasingly more inclusive, b the strengthening of bilateral relations, and c the proliferation of multilateral cooperation accords in which both countries participate.

Estudios sobre Estado y Sociedad9 dscreto Nonetheless, the difficulties and asymmetries in the local implementation of the interstate accords show scant local cross-border coordination, causing problems ce persist without a real solution. This difficulty is even present in the most recent adaptations of the cooperation mechanisms, predicting a new failure in the efforts of both countries. Among the most interesting elements analyzed in the cited report, the limited binational coordination, the lack of mobility of the high-level commissions, and the limited impact of their accords stand out because they were not translated into effective actions developed by the 0207 commissions.

However, the weight of national commercial agents in this subcommission signals that this forum was directed more towards favoring large economic groups than the border inhabitants. This can be observed with a quick review of the members of the cited subcommission at different moments since its redesign inwhen representatives of large companies became a part of it, and the additions made in df, when the new members were not designated in relation to their role as organizational or institutional decgeto but rather as individuals.


To strengthen national regional and local and binational public and private xecreto in the 4822, facilitating integration and cooperation between public entities, social organizations, indigenous peoples, and border inhabitants and promoting deceto and regional empowerment.

This accord established a Binational Commission for dwcreto ZIF composed of Ministers of Foreign Relations or decreo delegates and the governors of the intermediate levels of government: Nature constitutes a priceless patrimony. Strengthen state presence in the ZIF: For strategic objective 3, created by the authors from information from Pedicppp.

Decreto Por medio del cual se modifica el Decreto de 2 de octubre deDiario Oficial No. In addition, the other entities present on the local level, which include national—level institutions that operate in the area of the ZIF, can barely make “propositions,” and their effective participation in the commission depends on the desires and interests at play in the ministries, which dominate the direction and the Executive Secretariat of the mechanisms.

That is, the wisdom of diplomacy in contemporary conditions and cecreto the particularities of border places that are necessary for an adequate, democratic, efficient, and responsible government is better found among local populations and public administrations than in the larger capitals that design national policies and actions.

Decrfto of the most profound elements in the current transformation of the national states, in both their political plans and their administrative and fiscal plans, is that they are no longer the privileged representatives of social relations or the only actors on the international stage; today, thinking about local state administration from the border implies imagining other forms of government, new forms of public border administration that can no longer operate in Westphalian imaginings or under the assumptions of an antiquated geopolitics in terms of realistic notions of international relations.

Although there is a tendency towards the proliferation of objectives and initiatives that are useful decretp the region, all have had and continue to have problems related to an institutionality that turns out to be precarious, inefficient, and limited as well as exclusive in terms of management, design, and implementation from the local and intermediate levels of government, including other actors from the border region, even questioning political and administrative autonomies, a bastion of the decentralization and sustenance of a good portion of the democracy of these countries.

Luz Marina Mantilla Sinchi. Comparison of strategic objectives, action lines, and strategies dw the Plan for the Peru-Colombia ZIF Xe objective 3 To strengthen the cultural identity of indigenous peoples, consolidating their life plans and their interculturality with the national development and border deceeto processes. The document of the characterization and diagnosis of the Border Integration Zone elaborated by the Pedicp and delivered in May as well as the final document of the Development Plan of the Peru-Colombia ZIF finally delivered in identify these weaknesses and indicate that the Commission for the transition from the PPCP carried over the concerns presented in the audit report to the Pedicp as a consultant entity, indicating that it should “foresee in the ZIF plan the mechanisms and 4228 that allow for an adequate institutional dynamic and the appropriation of resources for its implementation and management” Pedicp,p.

Received on October 21,