EL ARTE COMO ARTIFICIO; Autor. Shklovski. INTEGRANTES: Antonieta Ontiveros Ruiz; Adriana López Núñez; Gabriela G. Agis Mendoza. Dra. Flor de María. 16; Louis Vax, Arte y literatura fantásticas (Buenos Aires: Eudeba, ), p. 6. 2. Victor Shklovski, “El arte como artificio” in Teoría de la literatura de los. Shklovski, Viktor (). El arte como artificio (). In Todorov, Tzvetan (Ed.), Teoría de la literatura de los formalistas rusos. Argentina: Siglo XXI, pp.

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In other words, in both cases, the usage of such terms has been widely spread but their semantic definitions remain quiet ambiguous.

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In other words, these worlds are limited by a logical rule that makes complete sense shklofski an existentialist framework. For Coomo Looy, the debate between ludologists and narratologists is still poorly focused, since the issue is not whether video games are narratives, but rather to what extent they may share characteristics with them. On one hand, 6 is false for its designated being, i. Or, in other words, he believed that linguistic expression is essentially self-referential.

Así la vida desaparece transformándose en nada. La – Sistemas de representación de la realidad

The second major critical argument of Ludology considers that video games are simulations, while narrative is based on representation pp. According to Leibniz himself: Of all these cited properties, only A, B and F are essential by having a fixed value, while C, D and G are incidental to their mutable value.

Would you sacrifice your humanity? Today, we have both a great variety of devices — home consoles, computers, phones and tablets — as well as genres and target audiences. In the same year, Janet Murray published her famous Hamlet on the Holodeck by using the work of Brenda Laurel as a reference in which she analyzes the digital environment — mainly, software design — as a space, a medium of creating virtual theater works whose main basis consists of the Aristotelian structure.

For example, the idea of slavery plays a very different role in the Western world today than it played in the Roman cultural world: Depending on how such questions are answered, philosophers have grouped themselves as either possibilists, where the possible remains above the real; hyperactualists, where possible worlds either do not exist or their existence is irrelevant; and actualists, where the current world remains above possible ones.


In this sense, the origin of video games consists of this same relation to the machine: Thus, the main characteristics of ludofictional worlds are the following: This evolution responds to an obvious problem: It is evident that the intensional perspective does not deny, in any case, the participation of extensional or referentialist semantics, also known as world semantics Albadalejo,p.

In any case, and to avoid losing focus on research with interdisciplinary guiding principles, the Theory of Fiction is determined as the central axis, specifically the analysis of semantic and pragmatic components of fictional worlds in an essentially interactive relationship, i. On the other hand, the principle of non-contradiction establishes two general ideas. The fragmentation of time is essential to the emergence of new non- linear narrative forms in digital mediums, especially in film and video games.

In this section, and as a preliminary component to a theory of video games as ludofictional worlds, a theoretical overview of the possible is put forth.

Victor, “Probleme der literarischen Gattungsgeschichte”, Deuts In this case, the first child is developing a role within ludic pretense, while the second has not managed to enter it. It was the bride herself who told him her version of the story: Gottfried Leibniz and David Lewis. This debate, which started the creation of Game Studies and demonstrated the terminological importance of the concept of narration, emerged from two key authors: On one hand, possible worlds establish certain links between each other, called accessibility relations, which allow transitivity between them.

On one hand, the viewer-story relationship is generally based on a certain anthropomorphic identification.

Will be grateful for shilovski help! To do so, he downloaded images of Kurt Cobain and his wife, Courtney Love, and created their avatars in the game. You can find a summary of this unusual perspective on games here: In other words, the real is not exclusively configured by different types of fictional worlds, but rather the cultural heritage and collective imaginary — composed of different types of fiction — also influence the configuration of subsequent fictional worlds: While some authors attribute its origin to Espen Aarseth Jenkins,its popularity as a concept as related to the study of video games appears in the publication of the article Ludology meets narratology similitudes and differences between video games and cojo by Gonzalo Frasca Se preocupan de los procedimientos, artificios.

In other words, a mere replication based on observation — for example, the monkey that sees another break open a coconut and does the same — supposes that the one imitating feels compelled to perform the same action to confirm the same result — the coconut opens and the animal can feed himself.


This positioning of Aarseth against narratological colonialism of the new interactive medium inspired a group of theorists to continue investigating the main differences between video games and shkovski narrative mediums. There is certain confusion regarding the terminological origin of Ludology.

The access of a fictional world is not comparable artifkcio the transfer of the actual world to a possible one from reality since this would be equivalent to comparing, rather grotesquely, both worlds at an ontological level. These are essential dilemmas in any medium, which, after years of experimentation, have resulted in specific languages of fiction, as with genres or stereotypes.

The second argument refers to the difference in the operation of time in video games and traditional narrative. After this explanation, we shall proceed to establishing an extended definition and the main levels of analysis for this semantic-pragmatic model.

Most authors Kucklich, and ; Van Looy, ; Mangieri, propose different useful concepts and illustrate them by analyzing more or less different video games. We shall look at each of these characteristics. This interpretation, within a possibilist framework that emphasizes reality and, at the same time, the non-existence of fictional objects, was proposed by Alexius Meinong and thus is given the name Meinongianism. In any case, play, whether paidea play or ludus gameis a simulated system of rules halfway between representation and simulation Frasca, b.


Skip to main content. This confrontation took place between two groups of academics — the so-called ludologists — who saw Narratology as a threat to the establishment of a new discipline that made video games central objects of study and, on the other hand, the narratologists who considered video games yet another medium that participated in the ecological system of traditional narrative.

Espen Aarserth and Janet Murray. We all make choices, but in the end, our choices make us. Who could help me? What is considered necessary Leibniz calls contingent; but what implies contradiction, or rather, the negation of necessary, is called impossible.

Written between and and published in three volumes, the saga tells the stories of a group of heroes that must accompany Frodo, a hobbit from the Shire, on a quasi-suicidal mission: